CHAPTER-5: How artificial intelligence works?

Developing an Artificial Intelligence (AI) system is a cautious procedure of reverse-engineering human behaviors and competences in a machine and using its computational ability to exceed what human beings are capable of. Combining huge amounts of data with fast, iterative processing and intelligent algorithms, allowing the software to learn automatically from design and configurations in the data are the process to develop Artificial Intelligence. It works in following sub fields:

Ø In machine learning, it demonstrates a machine how to implicate and take decisions based on past experience. It classifies designs, analyses past data to conclude the meaning of these data points to reach a possible conclusion without involving human experience. This automation system helps in business by saving human time and assist human to make appropriate decision.

Ø In deep learning, it explains a machine to process inputs through layers in order to categorize, conclude and forecast the outcome.

Ø In neural networks, it processes data like human brains or neural cells. These are a series of algorithms which develops the relationship between various fundamental variables.

Ø In natural language processing, it helps a machine to understand what the user expects to communicate and it responds accordingly.

Ø In computer vision, it helps the machine to classify and learn from a set of images, to make a better output decision based on previous observations. Here, computer vision algorithms break down an image and read different parts of the objects. In this way, it tries to understand the image.

Ø In intellectual computing algorithms it simulates a human brain by analyzing text, speech, images and objects in a method that a human does and tries to give the desired output.

Artificial Intelligence can be made over a different set of components and will function as a consolidation of following fields:

Ø Philosophy

Ø Mathematics

Ø Economics

Ø Neuroscience

Ø Psychology

Ø Computer Engineering

Ø Control Theory and Cybernetics

Ø Linguistics


Philosophy assists machines to think and understand about the nature of knowledge itself. It helps to connect knowledge and action through goal-based analysis to achieve required outcomes.


Artificial Intelligence algorithms help to make accurate predictions of future outcomes for taking right decision. Here, the mathematical application, probability is used.


Economics explains how people make choices according to their desired results. It contains not only money, but also many important ideas like design theory, operations research and decision processes. By using mathematics, it demonstrates how these decisions are being made at large scales along with their collective results are. Intelligent Systems are developed by these types of decision-theoretic techniques.


Neuroscience demonstrates how the human brain works. Artificial Intelligence tries to duplicate the same. Here, an obvious similarity is observed. Computers are millions of times faster than the human brain, but the human brain still has the advantage in terms of storage capability and interconnections. With advancement of computer hardware and more sophisticated software, it tries to achieve the intelligence level of human brain.


Intellectual psychology views the brain as an information processing device and works based on principles and goals. This is as like as our own developed intelligence machine. Building algorithms by code helps to power the chat bots.

Computer Engineering

Computer engineering translates all concepts and theories into a machine readable language, computes it and give result which we can understand. Artificial Intelligence systems are developed with rapid advancement of the field of computer engineering. These are based on advanced operating systems, programming languages, information management systems, tools, and state-of-the-art hardware.

Control Theory and Cybernetics

For making a system intelligent appropriately, a system should be capable to control and modify its actions to produce the desired result. It is defined as an objective function. The system moves forward based on this. It can frequently modify its actions in various environment by using mathematical computations and logic to measure and improve its behaviors.


The formation of natural language processing is explained in Linguistics. It helps machines to understand our syntactic language, and give result so that everyone can understand it. For understanding a language, it is required to learn the structure of sentences and have a knowledge of the subject matter and circumstance.

Next Chapter: CHAPTER-6: What are robotic arms?