CHAPTER-1: WHAT IS ELECTRICITY?
Our universe consists of either energy or matter. Ability to do work is called energy which comes in the form of kinetic energy or energy of movement, light, heat, solar energy, geothermal energy, hydro power, wind and electricity. To understand the electricity, we have to understand a matter called atom. Atom consists of three particles called protons, electrons, and neutrons. Protons and neutrons are in the center core or nucleus of the atom while electrons spin in energy levels called orbits or shells around the nucleus. As electrons are not firmly held to the nucleus, they have the capability to leave atoms. When electrons leave atoms, matter becomes charged. During the flow of electronics, electricity is generated. There are two types of electricity: static electricity and current electricity. Static electricity study is also known as electrostatics. When objects become charged, static electricity is generated. The charges on these objects do not flow from one object to the other. Objects become charged when they are rubbed together. When two objects are rubbed together, electrons can jump from one object to the other. Current electricity is the type of electricity which occurs when electricity flows through a specific path or a circuit consists of electrical wires. Electrical devices like appliances are one of the examples of this type of electricity.
Types of charges
Objects can exist in three different charged states. They are: positively charged, negatively charged, or neutral (no charge). Most objects are neutral. The atomic particles in an atom of magnesium is an example of this. Magnesium contains 12 protons (positively charged) and 12 electrons (negatively charged). An atom of magnesium is considered neutral since (+12) + (-12) = 0 (no charge). As soon as magnesium gains or loses electrons, it will have a charge on it. For example, magnesium will lose two electrons to become a stable atom so that it will have 12 protons (+12) and 10 electrons (-10). As a result, the overall charge on an atom of magnesium that has lost two electrons is (+12) + (-10) = +2. Therefore, magnesium is positively charged. Note that objects can only lose electrons. Atoms are not able to lose protons because they are held very tightly within the atom’s nucleus. When two objects are rubbed together, electrons leave one object and the other object gain those electrons. As a result, every time objects are rubbed together, one becomes positive and the other becomes negative. When one loses electrons and the other one gains electrons, this thing is happened.
The law of electric charges
The Law of Electric Charges states that objects with different charges will always be attracted (move towards) each other. On the other hand, objectives with the same charge (for example, two negatively charged objects) will always repel away from each other. Neutral objects will always be attracted to positively or negatively charged objects as well. Neutral objects will never be attracted or repelled from other neutral objects.
Current Electricity and Static Electricity
When electron flows, current electricity is generated. Current electricity can travel along a path or a circuit from where the electricity is generated. Hydroelectric power plant is one of this example. In this case, waterfalls through turbines and power generators electricity. When an object becomes charged by gaining or losing electrons from rubbing against another object, then it is called static electricity. Static electricity can’t move.